Terminology

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A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z

A
age-adjusted rate
An age-adjusted incidence or mortality rate is a weighted average of the age-specific incidence or mortality rates, where the weights are the proportions of persons in the corresponding age groups of a standard million population. The potential confounding effect of age is reduced when comparing age-adjusted rates computed using the same standard million population.
{{{frame}}} Agent
(HOSS Pipeline) Executes recipes. Takes in an electronic transaction, applies a recipe (set of transformations) to it, and returns the transformed electronic transaction. Agents move electronic transactions from waypoint to waypoint.
APC
Annual Percent Change is used to measure trend or the change in rate over time. It is the "average" annual rate of change over the time series selected.
API
Application Programming Interface
Annual Report to the Nation
An annual update of cancer death rates, incidence rates (new cases), and trends in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Cancer Society, the National Cancer Institute, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries collaborate to create this report.
B
C
cancer burden
A measure of the incidence of cancer within the population and an estimate of the financial, emotional, or social impact it creates. The burden of disease is not borne equally by all population groups in the United States.
CAS
Common Analysis Structure/System
CCD
Continuity of Care Document
CDA
Clinical Document Architecture
CCDA
Consolidated Clinical Document Architecture
CEM
Clinical Element Model
CIMI
Clinical Information Modeling Initiative
CIMIT
Center for Integration of Medicine & Innovative Technology
complete prevalence
Complete Prevalence represents the proportion of people alive on a certain day who previously had a diagnosis of the disease, regardless of how long ago the diagnosis was, or if the patient is still under treatment or is considered cured.
confidence interval
A range of values that has a specified probability of containing the rate or trend. The 95% (p-value = .05) and 99% (p-value = .01) confidence intervals are the most commonly used.
Consumer
(HOSS Pipeline) A recipient (and user) of electronic transactions that have reached a particular waypoint.
crude rate
A crude rate is the number of new cases (or deaths) occurring in a specified population per year, usually expressed as the number of cases per 100,000 population at risk.
CPE
The Collection Processing Engine is a tool shipped with UIMA. SHARP uses cTAKES for Natural Language Processing. cTAKES is based on UIMA.
CSR
The Cancer Statistics Review is an annual report containing the most recent incidence, mortality, and survival statistics, published by the Cancer Statistics Branch of the NCI. It presents a broad profile of the cancer burden.
cTAKES
Clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System - An open-source NLP tool developed by Mayo. It is available for download here: https://cabig-kc.nci.nih.gov/Vocab/KC/index.php/OHNLP_Documentation_and_Downloads
CTS
Common Type System - SHARPn NLP Common Type System is an effort for defining common NLP types used in SHARPn.
CTS2
Common Terminology Services 2
D
Data Pipeline
(HOSS Pipeline) Complex arrangement of technical components including injectors, waypoints, persistent waypoints, recipes, agents, and consumers. The data pipeline is designed to manage and transform a broad variety of standardized, non-standardized, malformed electronic transactions into a format usable by multiple data consumers.
delay adjusted rate
A cancer rate adjusted for reporting delay, the time elapsed before a diagnosed cancer case is reported to the NCI.
DSL
Domain Specific Language
E
EHR
Electronic Health Record
eMERGE
Electronic Medical Records and Genomics Network
EMR
Electronic Medical Record
{{{frame}}} Emitter
(HOSS Pipeline) A mechanism used to deliver payloads to a consumer. Reads envelopes from a waypoint and delivers them to a consumer according to a "subscription" contract that the consumer has with the pipeline.
Envelope
(HOSS Pipeline) A wrapper containing both the payload and metadata describing the payload.
{{{frame}}} Exception Waypoint
(HOSS Pipeline) A waypoint containing electronic transactions that threw exceptions when being processed by an agent.
extent of disease
Refers to the stage of the disease and details the degree to which the cancer has advanced. Extent of disease records the number of lymph nodes involved, metastases and size of primary tumor
F
Fast Stats
Fast Stats is designed to allow quick and easy access to key statistics for all major cancer sites by age, sex, race, and geographic area. The statistics include incidence, mortality, prevalence, and the probability of developing or dying from cancer.
five-year survival rate
The percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive five years after they were diagnosed with or treated for a disease, such as cancer. The disease may or may not have come back.


G
georeferenced statistics
Statistics reported by geographic location of the events (e.g., residence of the cancer case)


H
HIPPA
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996
HHS
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
HL7
Health Level Seven International
HSSP
Healthcare Services Specification Project
I
i2b2
Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside
IAAS
Infrastructure As A Service. Access to a collection of virtualized computer resources such as CPUs, networks, storage, and so on.
ICCC classification
At the time the World Health Organizations (WHO) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) published their first monograph on Childhood Cancer in 1988, Dr. R. Marsden published an annex giving a classification scheme for childhood cancer that consisted of 12 groups based chiefly on histologic type. The classification by Marsden has been modified and is now called the International Classification of Childhood Cancers.
iDASH
Integrating Data for Analysis, Anonymization and SHaring
IE
Information Extraction
incidence
The number of newly diagnosed cases during a specific time period
{{{frame}}} Injector
(HOSS Pipeline) A component that receives payloads from sources, wraps them in an envelope, and places them into the initial waypoint. A receiver can provide source validation -- e.g., messages from an unknown IP address can be rejected -- and simple pattern matching validation -- e.g., regular expressions. Rejected messages may optionally be logged. An injector declares which types of payloads it can handle.
{{{frame}}} Initial Waypoint
(HOSS Pipeline) An initial waypoint contains envelopes delivered from one or more injectors and cannot receive envelopes from other waypoints/agents. Envelopes within an initial waypoint, by definition, contain unaltered payloads. A message cannot be in more than one initial waypoint -- i.e., the sum of all messages across all initial waypoints represent all received messages for the pipeline.
instance
Generically, a real and working copy of an abstract notion.
For SHARP, a Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud virtual machine instance is a copy of an image that can be started by a user. Once started an instance is a working system setup having the hardware properties associated with it at launch.
For SHARP, a CEM instance is the actual XML file or object based on the CEM object templates.
image
A Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud virtual machine image is a set of software, including the operating system, that is available to be started by users. When launched a copy of the image is made and it is associated with a set of hardware settings such as number of processors, memory, etc. Many copies of an image can be started as instances.
J
JBOSS
A Java EE certified platform for developing and deploying enterprise Java applications, Web applications, and Portals. JBoss Application Server provides the full range of Java EE 5 features as well as extended enterprise services including clustering, caching, and persistence.
JBOSS will host the ODE (BPEL engine) enabling the execution of WS-BPEL processes.
Joinpoint software
Statistical software for the analysis of trends using a regression model that describes trends by a sequence of straight line segments, connected at "joinpoints" where significant changes in trend have been calculated.
K
L
life tables
A table for a given population listing, for each sex and each age from 0 to 120, how many members die at that age and how many survive one more year.
lifetime risk
The probability of developing or dying from cancer in the course of ones lifespan. Read more >
limited-duration prevalence
Represents the proportion of people alive on a certain day who had a diagnosis of the disease within the past x years.


M
MD SHARP
NIH SHARP Program Affiliate
MiPACQ
Multi-source Integrated Platform for Answering Clinical Questions
Mirth Connect
Designed as an interface engine, Mirth Connect provides the necessary tools for developing, testing, deploying, and monitoring interfaces.
Serving as the hub for both UIMA-AS and BPEL (ODE) services, Mirth Connect will be used to:
  1. Run single transactions through UIMA or BPEL processing, based upon the connection or parameters passed.
  2. Run batch transactions through UMIA or BPEL via iterations thru previously stored data sets found in the SHARP – MySQL repository.
Transactions once completed, will have their results persisted in the MySQL repository for later analysis or processing.
ML
Machine Learning
mortality
The number of deaths during a specific time period. Read more >
MU
Meaningful Use
MySQL
The MySQL database has become one of the world's most popular open source databases, because of its high performance, high reliability and ease of use.
The SHARP project will use MySQL as a persistent store for the batch input files, intermediate results and final processing results from the various pipelines (UIMA-AS / BPEL). As such a number of databases will be created as needed to store data in various formats, e.g. Clinical Element Models (CEM), run statistics, intermediate datasets.
N
NHIN CONNECT
CONNECT enables secure electronic health data exchange among healthcare providers, insurers, government agencies and consumer services.
It will enable data sets to be submitted across the internet to the SHARP Area 4 cloud patch to show case NLP, Data Normalization and Phenotyping algorithms.
NLM
National Library of Medicine
NLP
Natural Language Processing
NQF
National Quality Forum
NwHIN
Nationwide Health Information Network
O
ODE
BPEL Engine - Apache ODE (Orchestration Director Engine) executes business processes written following the WS-BPEL standard. It talks to web services, sending and receiving messages, handling data manipulation and error recovery as described by your process definition.
Within the SHARP project, the ODE will be installed in JBOSS and will be invoked via Web Service calls from the Mirth Connect hub. It is intended to run WS-BPEL scripts created by the SHARP Phenotyping team. Results generated from the execution of the BPEL processing will be persisted in the MySQL repository for later analysis or processing.
OHNLP
Open Health Natural Language Processing
OMG
Object Management Group
ONC
The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) is at the forefront of the administration’s health IT efforts and is a resource to the entire health system to support the adoption of health information technology and the promotion of nationwide health information exchange to improve health care. ONC is organizationally located within the Office of the Secretary for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).
OpenNLP
Machine learning toolset
OWL
Web Ontology Language
P
Payload
(HOSS Pipeline) In healthcare these can exist in broad variety of forms. They include HL7 v2 messages, HL7 v3 documents (e.g., CCD, etc.), and NCPDP messages, among others. They may also include ASCII delimited files (e.g., Delimited Text) and other "non-standard" formats.
percent change
The percent change (PC) in a statistic over a given time interval is Percent change = (Final value - Initial value) / Initial value * 100. A positive PC corresponds to an increasing trend, a negative PC to a decreasing trend.
PGRN
Pharmacogenomics Research Network
prevalence
The number of cases alive on a certain date. Read more >
primary tumor
The original tumor.
progression-free survival
The length of time during and after treatment in which a patient is living with a disease that does not get worse. Progression-free survival may be used in a clinical study or trial to help find out how well a new treatment works.
Q
QDM
Quality Data Model
R
RDF
Resource Description Framework
{{{frame}}} Recipe
(HOSS Pipeline) An ordered collection of transformations to be performed on an electronic transaction. A recipe defines how to transform an electronic transaction from one waypoint to another waypoint. Transformations that are bundled into a recipe have the ability to be contingent to other transformations.
relative survival rate
A specific measurement of survival where the rate is calculated by adjusting the rate to remove all causes of death except cancer. It is the ratio of a cancer patients chance of surviving a given time interval to that of an average person of the same age and sex.
reporting delay
The time elapsed before a diagnosed cancer case is reported to the NCI. Currently, the NCI allows a standard delay of 22 months between the end of the diagnosis year and the time the cancers are first reported to the NCI in November, almost two years later.
REST
Representational State Transfer
S
SEER
Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the NCI is a collection of population-based cancer registries in the United States which collect and submit cancer incidence and follow up data to the National Cancer Institute. The National Cancer Act of 1971 mandated the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data useful in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer leading to the establishment of the SEER Program.
SEER registries
SEER Program collects cancer incidence and survival data from the SEER registries, geographic areas selected for inclusion in the SEER Program based on their ability to operate and maintain a high quality population-based cancer reporting system and for their epidemiologically significant population subgroups.
SHARP
Strategic Health IT Advanced Research Projects (SHARP) Program. The SHARP program supports the discovery of “breakthrough” research findings that will accelerate the nationwide use of health IT and will support dramatic improvements in health care.
SHARPc
SHARP Area 2 Projects on patient centered cognitive support research
SHARPn
SHARP Area 4 Projects on Secondary Use of EHR Data Program
SHARPs
SHARP Area 1 Projects on Security
S&I
Standards & Interoperability Framework, ONC Funded
SMArt
SHARP Area 3 Substitutable Medical Apps, reusable technologies
spatial correlation
A measure of the tendency for places that are near to each other to have more similar (positive correlation) or dissimilar (negative correlation) values of their statistics.
Sofa
Subject of Analysis (UIMA Term)
stage
The extent of a cancer within the body. If the cancer has spread, the stage describes how far it has spread from the original site to other parts of the body.
standard error
The standard error of a rate is a measure of the sampling variability of the rate.
standard million population
A standard million population for a geographic area is a table giving the number of persons in each age group 0, 1-4, ... , 85+ out of a theoretical cohort of 1,000,000 persons that is distributed by age in the same proportions as the population.
standard population
A standard population for a geographic area, such as the U.S. or the world, is a table giving the proportions of the population falling into the age groups 0, 1-4, 5-9,…, 80-84, and 85+.
statistically significant
Describes a mathematical measure of difference between groups. The difference is said to be statistically significant if it is greater than what might be expected to happen by chance alone.
surveillance data (cancer)
Measures of cancer incidence, morbidity, survival, and mortality for persons with cancer. It also includes the assessment of genetic predisposition, environmental and behavioral risk factors, screening practices, and the quality of care from prevention through palliation.
survival
The proportion of patients alive at some point after the diagnosis of their cancer. Read more >
SWRL
Semantic Web Rule Language
T
THYME
Temporal Histories for Your Medical Events
trends over time
The change in rate over time expressed as an annual percent change.
{{{frame}}} Transformation
(HOSS Pipeline) Discrete instructions for altering an electronic transaction built into a class that implements the Transformer interface. A transformation may depend on other transformations -- i.e., a transformation may require that one or more other transformations have occurred before it will run.
U
UIMA
Unstructured Information Management Architecture
UIMA-AS
UIMA is an open, industrial-strength, scaleable and extensible platform for creating, integrating and deploying unstructured information management solutions from powerful text or multi-modal analysis and search components.
Within the SHARP project, the UIMA-AS infrastructure will be used to host natural language processing (NLP), data normalization algorithms and potentially some phenotype processing.
UMLS
Unified Medical Language System
V
VPN
Virtual Private Networking is a secure method to access a particular resource or resources typically enforced by user ID and password access via a network connection. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vpn
W
{{{frame}}} Waypoint
(HOSS Pipeline) A defined state of an electronic transaction that conforms to a set of particular criteria, such as semantic and/or syntactic rules. Most waypoints result from running an agent against another waypoint. Electronic transactions at a particular waypoint may or may not be persisted (a "persisted waypoint"), depending on the specific use-case.
X
XML
Extensible Markup Language
Y
Z